Dunland is a region in the south-east of Eriador. With Enedwaith to the North, the Old North-South Road (also known as the Greenway in Breeland) to the West and the Hithaeglir (Misty Mountains) to the east, Dunland is a hilly, brown land. Dunland means Hill Land in the language of neighbouring Rohan, whose people named it after arriving in nearby Calenardhon in the later Third Age.
The Great West Road and the North-South Road together formed the Royal Road which had been built to enable travel between Gondor and Arnor. The Great West Road from Gondor through Rohan ran to the eastern bank of the Fords of Isen, and from the western bank continued the North-South Road to Eriador. Dunland encompasses the rugged foothills that rise to the north of the Royal Road at the Isen, joining Tharbad in Cardolan to the markets further east. The highway skirts Dunland's southern border and runs eastward through the wide Isen Gap, separating the Misty Mountains to the north from the White Mountains to the south. Later called the Gap of Rohan, this portal from Eriador to Gondor served as the most important pass in western Middle-earth. It was once the dividing line between the lands dominated by the two Dúnadan Kingdoms in Exile - Arnor and Gondor - and it remains a vital link for the Free Peoples of the West. Thus, Dunland's importance remains significant, despite the reduction in traffic along the highway.
The northern border of Dunland was marked by the Glanduin (Border River), also known in its lower reaches as the Swanfleet. This river runs swiftly in its upper courses, before dropping over a set of falls down into the lowlands. Beyond this point the river flows sluggishly, creating a fenland, a network of pools and islets inhabited by swans and many other water birds.